Characteristics of Electrochemical Electrodes Containing Composite Films of Boron-doped Nanocrystalline Diamond and Amorphous Carbon Prepared using a Coaxial arc Plasma Deposition Method

Takeshi Hara, Masaya Onishi, Takumi Takenaga, Yuta Inoue, Masumi Ogishima, Daisuke Fujimoto, Tsuyoshi Yoshitake

Abstract


Composite films of boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond and amorphous carbon (B-doped NCD/a-C) were prepared using a coaxial arc plasma deposition (CAPD) method at an unheated substrate temperature without using any reaction gases. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements of the deposited films showed that they exhibit the unique electrochemical characteristics of diamond crystallites. The 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) aqueous solution, which is a recalcitrant substance found in industrial effluents, was degraded via electrolytic treatment using a batch-type system wherein the deposited films were used as anodes. UV–vis measurements revealed that part of the molecular structure of the 4-NP changed during this reaction. Furthermore, the total organic carbon (TOC) content in the 4-NP aqueous solution decreased as the electrolytic reaction progressed, implying that the degradation of 4-NP proceeded to yield CO2. The results reveal that the B-doped NCD/a-C films prepared using CAPD can be used as high-performance electrochemical electrode materials in industrial water treatment.

Full Text:

PDF

References


M. Panizza and G. Cerisola, “Application of Diamond Electrodes to Electrochemical Processes”, Electrochimica Acta, Vol.51, pp. 191-199, 2005.

Gabriel F. Pereira, Romeu C. Rocha-Filho, Nerilso Boc- chi and Sonia R. Biaggio, “Electrochemical Degradation of Bisphenol A using a Flow Reactor with a Boron- doped Diamond Anode”, Chemical Engineering Journal, Vol.198-199, pp. 282-288, 2012.

J. Iniesta, P. A. Michaud, M. Panizza, G. Cerisola, A. Aldaz and Ch. Comininellis, “Electrochemical Oxidation of Phenol at Boron-doped Diamond Electrode”, Electrochimica Acta, Vol. 46, pp. 3573-3578, 2001.

M. A. Rodrigo, P. Cañizares, A. Sánchez-Carretero and C. Sáez, “Use of Conductive-diamond Electrochemical Oxidation for Wastewater Treatment”, Catalysis Today, Vol.151, pp. 173-177, 2010.

S. R. Waldvogel and B. Elsler, “Electrochemical Synthesis on Boron-doped Diamond”, Electrochimica Acta, Vol.82, pp. 434-443, 2012.

T. Kondo, K. Sakai, T. Watanabe, Y. Einaga and M. Yuasa, “Electrochemical Detection of Lipophilic Antioxidants with High Sensitivity at Boron-doped Diamond Electrode”, Electrochimica Acta, Vol.95, pp. 205-211, 2013.

K. L. Soh, W. P. Kang, J. L. Davidson, Y. M. Wong, A. Wisitsora-at, G. Swain and D. E. Cliffel, “CVD Diamond Anisotropic Film as Electrode for Electrochemical Sensing”, Sensors and Actuators B, Vol.91, pp. 39-45, 2003.

K.Ueda, M.Kasu, Y.Yamauchi, T.Makimoto, M.Schwitters, D. J. Twitchen, G. A. Scarsbrook and S. E. Coe, “Diamond FET using High-quality Polycrystalline Diamond with fT of 45 GHz and fmax of 120 GHz”, IEEE Electron Device Letters, Vol.27, No.7, pp. 570-572, 2006.

M. -A. Pinault-Thaurya, T. Tillocher, N. Habka, D. Ko- bor, F. Jomard, J. Chevallier and J. Barjon Yang, “n-Type CVD Diamond: Epitaxy and Doping”, Materials Science and Engineering B, Vol.176, pp. 1401-1408. 2011.

N. Savvides and T. J. Bell, “ Hardness and Elastic Modulus of Diamond and Diamond-like Carbon Films”, Tin Solid Films, Vol.228, pp. 289-292, 1993.

M.S.Raghuveer, S.N.Yoganand, K.Jagannadham, R.L. Lemaster and J. Bailey, “Improved CVD Diamond Coatings on WC-Co Tool Substrates”, Wear, Vol.253, pp. 1194- 1206, 2002.

A. Erdemir, G. R. Fenske, A. R. Krauss, D. M. Gruen, T. McCauley and R. T. Csencsits, “Tribological Properties of Nanocrystalline Diamond Films”, Surface and Coatings Technology, Vol.120-121, pp. 565-572, 1999.

V. Ralchenko, S. Pimenov, V. Konov, A. Khomich, A. Saveliev, A. Popovich, I. Vlasov, E. Zavedeev, A. Bozhko, E. Loubnin and R. Khmelnitski, “Nitrogenated Nanocrystalline Diamond Films: Thermal and optical properties”, Diamond & Related Materials, Vol.16, pp. 2067-2073, 2007.

M.Sobaszek, Ł.Skowros ́ki, R.Bogdanowicz, K.Siuzdak, A. Cirocka, P. Zieba, M. Gnyba, M. Gnyaba, M. Naparty, Ł.Gołun ́ski, P.Płotka, “OpticalandElectricalProperties of Ultrathin Transparent Nanocrystalline Boron-doped Diamond Electrodes”, Optical Materials, Vol. 42, pp. 24- 34, 2015.

O. A. Williams, M. Daenen, J. D’Haen, K. Haenen, J. Maes, V. V. Moshchalkov, M. Nesl ’adek, D. M. Gruen, “Comparison of the Growth and Properties of Ultrananocrystalline Diamond and Nanocrystalline Diamond”, Diamond and Related Materials, Vol. 15, pp. 654-658, 2006.

K. Hanada, T. Yoshitake, T. Nishiyama and K. Nagayama, “Time-resolved Spectroscopic Observation of Deposition Processes of Ultrananocrystalline Diamond/Amorphous Carbon Composite Films by using a Coaxial Arc Plasma Gun”, Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 49, No. 8, pp. 08JF091-08JF094, 2010.

Y.Yao, M.Y.Liao, T.Ko ̋hler, T.Frauenheim, R.Q.Zhang, Z. G. Wang, Y. Lifshitz, S. T. Lee, “Diamond Nucleation by Energetic Pure Carbon Bombardment”, Physical Review B, Vol. 72, pp. pp. 0354021-0354025, 2005.

A. Zkria, Y. Katamune and T. Yoshitake, “Effects of Nitrogen Doping on the Electrical Conductivity and Optical Absorption of Ultrananocrystalline Diamond/Hydrogenated Amorphous Carbon Films Prepared by Coaxial Arc Plasma Deposition”, Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 55, No. 7S2, pp. 07LE011-07LE014, 2016.

A. Zkria, H. Gima, M. Shaban and T. Yoshi- take, “Electrical Characteristics of Nitrogen-Doped Ultrananocrystalline Diamond/Hydrogenated Amorphous Carbon Composite Films Prepared by Coaxial Arc Plasma Deposition”, Applied Physics Express, Vol. 8, pp. 0951011-0951013, 2015.

H. Naragino, M. Egiza, A. Tominaga, K. Murasawa and H. Gonda, M. Sakurai, and T. Yoshitake, “Room- Temperature Hard Coating of Ultrananocrystalline Diamond/Nonhydrogenated Amorphous Carbon Composite Films on Tungsten Carbide by Coaxial Arc Plasma Deposition”, Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 55, No. 3, pp.0303021-0303024, 2016.

T. Hara, Y. Nojiri, K. Hanada and T. Yoshitake, “Detection Methods of Diamond Diffraction Peaks in Ultra- nanocrystalline Diamond/Amorphous Carbon Composite Films by X-Ray Diffraction Measurement with Semiconductor Counter Detector”, Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, Vol.54, No. 10, pp. 1080021-1080023, 2015.

T. Hara, M. Onishi, D. Fujimoto and T. Yoshitake, “Electrochemical Characteristics Of Boron-Doped Ultra- nanocrystalline Diamond/Amorphous Carbon Composite Films Fabricated by Coaxial Arc Plasma Deposition”, The Japanese Journal of the Institute of Industrial Applications Engineers”, Vol. 4, No.1, pp. 31-32, 2016. [in Japanese]

T. Takenaga, M. Onishi, D. Fujimoto, Y. Nojiri and T. Hara, “Electrolytic Treatment Characteristics of Boron- Doped Nanocrystalline Diamond/Amorphous Carbon Composite Films Prepared by Coaxial Arc Plasma Deposition”, Proceedings of the 5th IIAE International Conference on Industrial Application Engineering 2017, pp. 45-50, 2017.

P. Cañizares, C. Sáez, J. Lobato, and M. A. Rodrigo, “Electrochemical Treatment of 4-Nitrophenol- Containing Aqueous Wastes using Boron-Doped Diamond Anodes”, Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, Vol. 43, No. 9, pp. 1944-1951, 2004.

X. Zhu and J. Ni, “The Improvement of Boron-Doped Di- amond Anode System in Electrochemical Degradation of P-Nitrophenol by Zero-Valent Iron”, Electrochimica Acta, Vol. 56, pp. 10371-10377, 2011.

K. Kuroda, T. Ishida and M. Haruta, “Reduction of 4- nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol over Au Nanoparticles Deposited on PMMA”, Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical, Vol.298, pp. 7-11, 2009.

B. Vellaichamy, P. Periakaruppan and J. Thomas, “Synthesis of AuNPs@RGO Nanosheets for Sustainable Catalysis Toward Nitrophenols Reduction”, Ultrasonics- Sonochemistry, Vol. 48, pp. 362-369, 2018.

P. Cañizares, M. Díaz, J. A. Domínguez, García-Gómez and M. A. Rodrigo, “Electrochemical Oxidation of Aqueous Phenol Wastes on Synthetic Diamond Thin-Film Electrodes”, Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, Vol.41, No.17, pp.4187-4194, 2002.

G. Cicala, P. Bruno, F. Bénédic, F. Silva, K. Hassouni and G. S. Senesi, “Nucleation, Growth and Characterization of Nanocrystalline Diamond Films”, Diamond and Related Materials, Vo. 14, pp. 421-425, 2005.

D. Zhou, T. G. McCauley, L. C. Qin, A. R. Krauss and D. M. Gruen, “Synthesis of Nanocrystalline Diamond Thin Films from an Ar-CH4 Microwave Plasma”, Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 83, No. 1, pp. 540-543, 1998.

M. Hiramatsua, C. H. Lau, A. Bennett and J. S. Foord, “Formation of Diamond and Nanocrystalline Diamond Films by Microwave Plasma CVD”, Thin Solid Films, Vol. 407, pp. 18-25, 2002.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.12792/jiiae.7.99

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Online edition: ISSN 2187-8811 Print edition: ISSN 2188-1758